From Miami to Key West, U.S. Route 1 leapfrogs key to key for 113 miles and across 42 overseas bridges in a rather amazing feat of engineering. Known as the Overseas Highway, U.S. Route 1 runs through the heart and soul of the Florida Keys passing by an endless supply of souvenir shops, strip malls and fast food joints directly parallel to the third largest barrier reef in the world.

Despite being one of the most touristy spots in the nation, welcoming cruise ships, bohemians, bikers, margherita drinkers, fisherman and boaters, the Florida Keys is also home to one of the most unique ecosystems in the United States. Off the tip of Florida, curving southwest for 126 miles, lies an archipelago of 1,700 islands which are part of a massive coral reef known as the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Covering 9,600 square kilometers, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is the closest federally protected coral reef in the continental United States and the third largest coral reef in the world after the Great Barrier Reef of Australia and the reefs off of Belize.

Without the barrier reefs, the entire ecological and environmental make-up of the Florida Keys would be different. Instead of the gentle, calm, nurturing warm waters that provide an essential protected habitat for fish and organisms, there would be rough waves and sandy beaches replacing the mangroves and sea grass that are the trees of life in the Keys.

Florida Keys Mangroves

Mangroves line more than 1,800 miles of shoreline within Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. In the Florida Keys, the red mangrove, black mangrove, and white mangrove tend to dominate wetland areas.

Although I have visited the Florida Keys numerous times over the past twenty years, I had no idea that that the Keys represent such an amazing ecological treasure until I spent a morning sea kayaking in the backwaters of Stock Island Key. During a fantastic two-hour ecotour with Blue Planet Kayaks, my family and I set off into the warm, shallow crystal clear waters and entered the magical canopies of mangroves where we learned all about the magnificent ecosystem of the Florida Keys.

img_5205Our tour began on Stock Island, a short drive from our hotel in Key West, where we met our knowledgeable guide for the morning and had a brief lesson on the essentials of sea kayaking. My nine-year old daughter climbed in front and I took the back of our two-person kayak and set off into the hot breezeless morning paddling towards the first canopy of mangroves.

Blue Planet Kayaks

Heading out to the mangroves

The Florida Keys are not known for their beaches. In fact, almost all the sand the covers the sparse beaches in the Keys is imported from the Bahamas. I never stopped to question why there were no real beaches or why there were no waves along the Florida Keys until I learned about the importance of the flora and fauna in making this magical sanctuary.

Together with sea grass, mangroves play a critical role in creating and sustaining the unique ecosystem along the Florida Keys. There are over 80 different species of mangroves, and mangroves line more than 1,800 miles of shoreline within Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. In the Florida Keys, the red, black, and white mangroves are the most prominent. (1) As for sea grass, an estimated 2.7 million acres of seagrass meadows grow along Florida’s extensive coastline, protected bays and lagoons (2).

Mangroves and seagrass work together to provide a unique haven of nutrients for the fish, sea urchins, starfish and birds that live and feed in the area. The roots of mangroves act as a barrier to the movement of the waves protecting the shoreline from erosion and creating an area of calm, warm, salty water that is called a lagoon or the “flats“.  Seagrass acts to stabilize the sediments on the seafloor and together with mangroves filters pollutants and absorbs excess nutrients from runoff helping to increase the beautiful clarity and quality of the water.  The leaves from the mangroves fall into water and decompose providing an excellent source of nutrition.

Blue Planet Kayak

Entering the magical world of mangroves is rather exciting

The mangroves get thicker and thicker as you move inside the narrow passageways

The mangroves get thicker and thicker as you move inside the narrow passageways

Seagrass is actually an underwater flowering plant. It acts like a sponge, grabbing the nutrients in the water where they stick to its foliage (giving it a fuzzy looking appearance). Without sea grass, the water would not be so incredibly clear and the fish wouldn't have such a nutrious meal readily available.

Seagrass is actually an underwater flowering plant. It acts like a sponge, grabbing the nutrients in the water where they stick to its foliage (giving it a fuzzy looking appearance). Without sea grass, the water would not be so incredibly clear and the fish wouldn’t have such a nutrious meal readily available.

I was amazed by how incredibly magical, mysterious and beautiful it was inside the mangroves. Paddling at times got rather difficult and we had to dissemble our paddle into two smaller parts so we could pass through the tangling web of mangroves. We saw tree spiders that attached themselves to the mangled roots, sea urchins, star fish and lots of different kinds of fish. Ospreys, herons, pelicans and cormorants also make this ecosystem their home.

What I enjoyed most about our ecotour was that the group size was very small (they keep groups to under 10 people) and our guide was like a paddling encyclopedia. For two hours, we learned all about the amazing diversity and uniqueness of this place. When tourists think about visiting the Florida Keys, rarely is it to explore the mangroves that decorate its coast. I think a lot of people are clearly missing out.

If you go:

We hired Blue Planet Kayak to take our family of four on the Boca Chica two-hour tour. The tour is very well suited for families as well as for both beginner and experienced paddlers. Here is a brief description from their website:

The Boca Chica tour offers a great diversity of marine life and habitats in a small area, highlighted by fantastic tidal creeks. We’ll meander on emerald waters through islands of exotic red mangroves, known as “walking trees.” Then paddle over sandy shallows brimming with coral, sponges, starfish, crabs, anemones, urchins and tropical fish. You will want to bring your camera for this!

Your guide will catch some of these critters — you can get to know them personally! As we drift near a tropical island, you will see osprey nesting and wading birds feeding. Queen conch, small sharks, tarpon and stingrays are common, as is the spectacular spotted eagle ray.

This is our most popular tour and a great paddle for families. Being largely sheltered from the wind, it’s ideal for beginner and pros alike. Located two miles from Key West.


Blue Planet Kayak

Tour Duration: 2.5 hours
Meets: 10 am & 12:30 pm
Summer hours: 10 am only
Price: $50 per person
(does not include $3 per ticket fee + tax)


(1). Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary – What are mangroves?

(2). Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary – What is sea grass?


  1. Nicole when we kayaked in the Baja we spent some time in mangroves just like this. I found it fascinating. always wonderful to find a small tour that is so educational besides being beautiful.

  2. I was looking at those tangled branches and wondering how a kayak paddle could move freely, and then you answered my mental question in the next paragraph! Looks like a great day out on the water. I’m already missing warm weather and it’s not even cold yet! Not a good sign …

    1. Ha Ha…yes I was a little fearful myself as it is very narrow. I had no idea that the paddles came apart but it helped. We did get stuck quite a bit thought Lexi!

  3. That looks like some great exploring, great to see nature thrive so close to human activity and how vital it is to keep the whole area in shape! Great read and watch as always, greetings, Ron.

  4. Fantastic adventure, Nicole! I always love kayaking through mangrove forests — somehow it feels like I’m entering a mysterious world with all the weird-looking roots and branches around me. Oh btw, I think it’s better to not lift starfish out of water because according to some sources that I read it might cause stress to them. One of those articles:
    Nevertheless, I really love your photos with all the blue skies. It’s been raining for weeks here in Jakarta.

    1. Thank you so much for sharing this article. Our guide is trained and the tour does not accept people from cruise ships given the impact on the environment. Our guide caught the starfish in a net and let us see it. I’m going to call them now and share this finding.

    2. Bama, I just got off the phone with the owner and he is actually a marine biologist and disputes this claim. He stated that they are very careful which species of fish can and cannot be handled. He said there is a lot of inaccurate information out there however for the average person who is not a biologist it is best to not pick up any fish or critters since you will not know. This was helpful and I never would have picked up the phone and questioned this if you didn’t bring it up. So thank you!

      1. That’s very reassuring. Thank you so much for confirming this to a marine biologist, Nicole! I really appreciate that.

  5. Wonderful post and what a fabulous adventure Nicole. I think I would love to do that. It sounds like our pace exactly. I’ve never been to Florida, though because of the cost of medical insurance we tend to stay away from the US so I’m happy to learn about it from your posts.

  6. Ein interessanter Bericht über die Mangroven in Florida! Leider zu weit weg von Switzerland 😉 . Ich bin in der Schweiz früher auf Flüssen Kanu gefahren. Danke für’s zeigen. Ernst

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